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With the current weather conditions and increasing rain in all regions there are many necessary precautions to be taken to avoid many infections, viral and many diseases such as malaria, dengue,typhoid and cholera etc.

So this article brings on information about all the precautionary steps and ways to deal with such health consequences.

Typhoid is an infectious disease with an acute fever of short duration and occurs only in humans. Feces and urine of the patients or carriers of the disease are the source of infection. Drinking water or milk and food contaminated by intestinal contents of the patients or “carriers” or by flies which often transmit disease. This bacteria may survive in food for upto 7 days.

It is characterized by continued, high inflammation of the intestine, formation of intestinal ulcers, hemorrhage and enlargement of spleen can occur. The patient may complain of diarrhea and the patient may feel headache and anorexia.

A high calorie, high protein, high carbohydrate, low fat, high fluid, low fiber and bland diet is suggested for typhoid patients. At first clear fluid to be given, followed by a full fluid and soft diet. On liquid diets the patient may not meet high calorie and high protein requirements. As the patient is improving, a soft diet can be given. The febrile period may upset water balance and liquid diets are helpful in meeting water and electrolyte requirements.

Foods to be included are fruit juices with glucose, coconut water, barley water, milk, milk shakes if there is no diarrhea, custards, thin dal, eggs, baked fish, curds, cottage cheese, cereals, gruels, steamed vegetable juices, milk puddings and vegetable puree.

Foods to be avoided are

Due to intestinal inflammation, great care must be exercised to eliminate all irritating fibers and spices in the diet. Refined cereals, bread, eggs, boiled potato simple desserts like custards, porridges can be given. Adequate nutrition reduces convalescence period.

Malaria has four species of the genus plasmodium that are responsible for human malaria. It is transmitted from humans by the bite of infected female anopheles mosquitoes. Induced malaria occurs due to congenital transmission or transmission by blood transfusion.

Typical malarial attacks show sequentially over 4-6 hours.shaking chills (the cold stage) fever (the hot stage) to 41degree celsius or higher and the sweating stage. Associated symptoms include fatigue, headache, dizziness, gastrointestinal symptoms (anorexia, nausea, slight diarrhea, vomiting, abdominal cramps) myalgia, arthralgia, backache and dry cough.

Either from the onset or with progression of the disease, the attacks may show an every other day periodicity in vivax, ovale or falciparum malaria or an every-third-day (quartan) periodicity in malariae malaria. Splenomegaly usually appears when acute symptoms have continued for 4 or more days.

There is an increase in the metabolic rate amounting to 13 per cent for every degree Celsius rise in body temperature (7 percent of each degree Fahrenheit); an increase is also due to restlessness and hence a greatly increased caloric need.

Decreased glycogen stores and decreased stores of adipose tissue. Increased catabolism of protein places an additional burden upon the kidneys. Accelerated loss of body water owing to increased perspiration and excretion of body wastes. Increased excretion of sodium and potassium.

The World Health Organization has recommended a malaria vaccine for use in children who live in countries with high numbers of malaria cases.

If you live in or are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. One should cover their skin; wear pants and long- sleeved shirts. Tuck in your shirt, and tuck pant legs into socks.

Apply insect repellent to skin; use an insect repellent registered with the environmental protection agency on any exposed skin. These include repellents that contain DEET, picaridin, oil of lemon eucalyptus, p menthane-3, 8-diol (PMD) or 2-undecanone. Do not use spray directly on your face. Do not use products with OLE or PMD on children under age 3.

Apply repellent on clothing; sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing. Sleep under a net; bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticides, such as permethrin, help prevent mosquito bites while you are sleeping.

There are lots of risks and dangers in this season and people get infected due to it. So self care is the utmost.

Thanks Giving

This article is written and submitted to The E Today by Shrushti Mehta.

We thank her for her research and analysis and hope to see the awareness about health and nutrition being spread ahead to larger mass of our citizens.

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